Material and colour selection
Generally speaking, the more thermal mass the better and the heavier a material, the better its ability to store heat. The optimum would be a masonry home with a reverse brick veneer construction and concrete floors. Or using something like concrete block walls and insulate at the outside, with isolation boards.
If this option is too expensive use as much thermal mass as possible, concrete slab is preferable. In warmer climates the ground is colder and can help to cool the concrete. Therefore the indoor air temperature will be reduced. In colder climates, however, the concrete slab needs to be insulated from the ground in order to minimise heat loss in winter. When looking a the energy start rating, insulating the slab on ground can add up to 1 star to your star rating.
If a timber subfloor is requested or required, the focus should be at least on internal brick walls to the north which need to be exposed to the winter sun and are therefore able to absorb and release heat. Other materials that have a good thermal conductivity are water, sandstone, rammed earth and earth blocks, mud brick etc.
Moreover, colours and coverings can influence the performance of thermal mass. For example carpets and timber floors will minimise the ability of thermal mass to absorb and release heat as they work as additional insulation. This can lower the required heating in winter, but it will increase the need of additional cooling in summer, as the thermal mass can absorb less heat. On the other hand, hard floor finishes such as tiles, stone or slate on concrete slab can increase the ability to store heat. Dark colours or dark materials also tend to absorb more heat, however, light-coloured walls are more desirable as they maximise natural daylight. Dark walls will increase the need of artificial lighting, as they absorb light and can make rooms appear smaller. In short, material and colour selection can promote or adversely affect the performance of thermal mass.
One alternative to adding thermal mass as a actual building material is to add something that acts as thermal mass, but is light weight. There is one product on the Australian market, calle BioPCM. This phase change material acts as thermal mass, without the weight actual thermal mass has, and hence standard light weight construction and footings are sufficient, which are usually significantly cheaper than if you are building with brick and or block work.
“BioPCM™ is a lightweight smart thermal mass, providing design flexibility and easy installation for a cost effective and simple approach to integrating sustainable technology into buildings.
BioPCM™ absorbs excess heat during the day and releases this energy back in the evening as buildings cool.”
We have used the BioPCM to line the walls of a pantry, to keep it cooler and create some sort of cool – room. And the result was really great. The room always stays much colder then the rest of the well insulated weatherboard home.